1880 Census
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1880 Census

Welcome to 1880census.com —
This site features content dealing exclusively with the 1880 Census. The 1880 U.S. Federal Census was the tenth enumeration of the United States population and results reported a growth of more than 30% over the prior decade. The official 1880 census date was June 1, 1880 and marshalls had just one month to complete their work. Although the 1880 census contains more detail than prior enumerations, similar efforts had also been conducted by the Federal government every decade since 1790 as required by the U.S. Constitution.

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Notable Features of the 1880 Census
At the time the 1880 census was taken, it was significant in many ways. Given the destruction of the 1890 census, both the 1880 and 1900 census have taken on a greater significance for those conducting genealogy research.

The 1880 Census was the first U.S. Census to record the relationship between individual household members and the head of household. While the relationships can sometimes be inferred using prior census schedules, this is the hard evidence that many researchers are looking for. Thirty-eight states were enumerated in the 1880 census, plus the territories of: Arizona, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Non-organized Alaska was also enumerated, but the "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma) was not enumerated for non-Indians.

The official census date for the 1880 Census was Tuesday, June 1, 1880 (a leap year) and the resulting enumeration recorded a U.S. population of 50,189,209 for the 38 states, as well as territories mentioned above. The President of the United States on the census date was Rutherford B. Hayes.

Questions Asked for the 1880 Census

    In Cities (Name of Street, House Number)
  1. Dwelling houses numbered in order of visitation
  2. Families numbered in order of visitation
  3. The Name of each Person whose place of abode, on 1st day of June, 1880, was in this family.
  4. PERSONAL DESCRIPTION: Color — White, W. Black, B. Mulatto, Mu. Chinese, C. Indian, I.
  5. PERSONAL DESCRIPTION: Sex — Male, M. Female, F.
  6. PERSONAL DESCRIPTION: Age at last birthday prior to June 1, 1880. If under 1 year, give months in fraction
  7. If born within the Census year, give the month
  8. Relationship of each person to the head of the family -- whether wife, son, daughter, servant, border, or other.
  9. Civil Condition: Single
  10. Civil Condition: Married
  11. Civil Condition: Widowed / Divorced, D.
  12. Married during Census year
  13. Occupation: Profession, Occupation or Trade of each person, male or female
  14. Occupation: Number of months this person has been unemployed during the Census year
  15. Health: Blind
  16. Health: Deaf and Dumb
  17. Health: Idiotic
  18. Health: Insane
  19. Health: Maimed, Chrippled, Bedridden, or otherwise disabled
  20. Education: Attended school within the Census year
  21. Education: Cannot read
  22. Education: Cannot write
  23. Nativity: Place of Birth of this person, naming State or Territory of United States, or the Country, if of foreign birth
  24. Nativity: Place of Birth of the Father of this person, naming the State or Territory of United States, or the Country, if of foreign birth.
  25. Nativity: Place of Birth of the Mother of this person, naming the State or Territory of United States, or the Country, if of foreign birth.

Other Useful Sites for Genealogy
When conducting family history research, you will quickly realize that no one source can answer all your questions. This is true for original source material, physical archives, and those archives that have been digitized and transcribed for searching via the Internet.

While this site is focused on 1880 census and how to use Census Records, there are a host of other record types and Web sites that may be of interest.
Here are some of our favorites:

Search 1880 Census ¤ 1930 Census - free details for researching 1930 census records
¤ US Census - an summary overview, 1790 - 1940
¤ Genealogy 101 Tips for Beginners & Free forms
¤ NY Arrivals searcing NY passenger arrivals
¤ Vital Records tips at Genealogy Worldwide
¤ Google Your Family Tree (Award Winning Book!)
¤ American Immigrant Wall of Honor at Ellis Island
¤ New York Passenger Lists, detail about the Port of NY
¤ SteveMorse.org (One Step Search Tools)
¤ Castle Garden
¤ APG (Assoc. of Professional Genealogists)
¤ LDS Church (the Mormon Church)
¤ Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter (by Dick Eastman)

1880 Census
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